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Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Grapple (tool)

A grapple is a hook or claw used to catch or hold something. A ship's anchor is a type of grapple, especially the "grapnel" anchor.A throwing grapple (or "grappling hook")is a multi-pronged hook that is tied to a rope and thrown to catch a grip, as on a parapet or branch of a tree. It may also be used in a boat to "drag" the bottom of a waterway to hook debris or to find missing objects.

In logging and other engineering vehicles, a grapple is a hydraulically powered claw with two or more opposing levers that pinch a log or other materials, usually to lift or drag them.

The logging grapple used in swing yarding is not moved by hydraulics but by cables. To open and close the tongs of the grapple, two cables are used. One is tensioned and the other is slacked off to move the tongs. A third cable goes back to the tail hold then to the yarder. This third cable is used to pull the grapple out into the setting and to create tension for lifting the grapple in the air.

A grapple can be mounted to a tractor or excavator with a movable arm that may lift, extend/retract, and move side-to-side (pivot or rotate). Some machines also have a separate control for rotating the grapple.

Simpler grapple machines consist of a hydraulically liftable fork, rake ("grapple rake"), or bucket and a movable, opposing "thumb" (one or more hooks or levers) that enclose and grip materials for lifting or dragging. A "demolition bucket" or "multi-purpose bucket" on a loader may also operate as a grapple whereby the bottom and rear side of the bucket are hinged and can be forced apart or together with hydraulic cylinders.

A lifting grapple is a type of hardware that can attached to most large, heavy or bulky object to provide a feature on the item to which material handling equipment can attach. Lifting grapples sometimes double as tie downs, allowing heavy items to be held firmly in place by providing a point to which ropes or chains can be attached to the item to hold it in place.

Oil tanker

The technology of oil transportation has evolved alongside the oil industry. Although man's use of oil reaches to prehistory, the first modern commercial exploitation dates back to James Young's manufacture of parafin in 1850.[6] In these early days, oil from Upper Burma was moved in earthenware vessels to the river bank where it was then poured into boat holds.[7]

In the 1850s, the Pennsylvania oil fields became a major supplier of oil, and a center of innovation after Edwin Drake had struck oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania.[7] The first oil well in the United States was dug here in 1859, initially yielding around ten barrels per day.[8] Within two years, the Titusville field was providing 3,000 barrels per day.[8] By this time, petroleum oil had already begun to supplant fish, whale, and vegetable oils for applications such as indoor and outdoor lighting, and transatlantic export had already begun.[8]

Break-bulk boats and barges were originally used to transport Pennsylvania oil in 40-US-gallon (150 l) wooden barrels.[7] But transport by barrel had several problems. The first problem was weight: the standard empty barrel weighed 64 pounds (29 kg), representing 20% of the total weight of a full barrel.[9] Also, barrels were leaky, and could only be carried one way.[9] Finally, barrels were themselves expensive. For example, in the early years of the Russian oil industry, barrels accounted for half the cost of petroleum production.[9]

The movement of oil in bulk was attempted in many places and in many ways. Modern oil pipelines have existed since 1860.[7] In 1863, two sail-driven tankers were built on England's River Tyne.[10] These were followed in 1873 by the first oil-tank steamer, the Vaderland, which was built by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company for Belgian owners.[8][10] The vessel's use was curtailed by U.S. and Belgian authorities citing safety concerns.[11] By 1871, the Pennsylvania oil fields were making limited use of oil tank barges and cylindrical railroad tank-cars similar to those in use today

Excavator

In recent years, hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far beyond excavation tasks with buckets. With the advent of hydraulic powered attachments such as a breaker, a grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in many applications other than excavation. Many excavators feature quick-attach mounting systems for simplified attachment mounting, increasing the machine's utilization on the jobsite. Excavators are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Most wheeled versions, and smaller, compact excavators have a small backfill (or dozer-) blade. This is a horizontal bulldozer-like blade attached to the undercarriage and is used for pushing removed material back into a hole. Prior to the 1990s, all excavators had a hang over, or "conventional" counterweight that hung off the rear of the machine to provide more digging force and lifting capacity. This became a nuisance in tight turn areas - the machine could not swing the second half of its cycle due to restricted turn radius. In the early 1990s The Komatsu Engineering Company launched a new concept excavator line that did away with the "conventional" counterweight design, and so started building the world's first tight tail swing excavators (PC128.PC138,PC228,PC308). These machines are now widely used though out the world.

Track loader

A track loader is an engineering vehicle consisting of a tracked chassis with a loader for digging and loading material. The history of track loaders can be defined by three evolutions of their design. Each of these evolutions made the track loader a more viable and versatile tool in the excavation industry. These machines are capable in nearly every task, but master of none. A dozer, excavator, or wheel loader will out perform a track loader under a set of conditions, but the ability of a track loader perform almost every task on a job site is why it remains a part of many companies' fleets.

The first track loaders were built from track tractors with scratch built loaders. The first loaders were cable operated like the bulldozers of the era. These track loaders lacked the ability to dig in hard ground, but so did the dozers of the day. They were mostly used for moving stockpiled material and loading trucks and rail cars.

The first major design change to track loaders came with the integration of hydraulic systems. Using hydraulics to power the loader linkages increased the power of the loader. More importantly, the loaders could apply downpressure to the bucket, vastly increasing their ability to dig unworked ground. Most of the track loaders were still based on a bulldozer equivalent. The weight of the engine was still on the front half of the tracks along with the heavy loader components. This caused many problems with heavy wear of the front idler wheels and the undercarriage in general. The Caterpillar 983 track loader, the second largest track loader ever built, was notorious for heavy undercarriage wear.

The hydrostatic drive system was the second major innovation to affect the the design of track loaders.

Track loaders have become very sophisticated machines, using hydrostatic transmissions and electro-hydraulic controls to increase efficiency. Until the rise in popularity of excavators, track loaders had little competition digging and loading jobs.

Now, the lower owning and operating costs, versatility and acquisition costs of hydraulic excavators are making track loaders a "thing of the past"...

Hitachi EX8000

Maybe the World largest Hydraulic Excavator.

latest equipment nepal

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Friday, October 2, 2009

Combat engineering vehicle

Combat engineering vehicles (CEVs) are armoured vehicles built for combat engineering work on the battlefield or for the transportation of sappers.

Most CEVs are armoured fighting vehicles that may be based on a tank chassis and have special attachments in order to breach obstacles. Such attachments may include dozer blades, mine rollers, cranes etc. An example of an engineering vehicle of this kind is a bridgelaying tank, which replaces the turret with a segmented hydraulic bridge.

The Hobart's Funnies of the Second World War were a wide variety of armoured vehicles for combat engineering tasks. They were allocated to the initial beachhead assaults by the British and Commonwealth forces in the D-Day landings

Hydrema

Hydrema is a dump truck manufacturer based in Støvring, Denmark, founded in 1959. They have specialized in the manufacture of articulated light dump trucks and earth moving equipment. A variety of models are produced, with a payload of up to 20 tonnes. A company subsidiary is also operating in Weimar, Germany.

In 1959 Aksel Kyed and Kjeld W. Jensen started the company "Kyed and Werner Jensen", which at that time were involoved in two different projects, district heating and the fabrication of hydraulic digging equipment.

In 1960 the company was split, and Kjeld W. Jensen started Hydrema. Back then the headquarters were placed in Aalborg.

In 1962 the company moved to Støvring. At that time Hydrema had 15 workers and an area of 320 m².

In 1971 a daughter company was established in Norway, followed by Sweden in 1979, the former West Germany in 1981, England in 1985 and France in 1988. There are many countries like the USA, Australia and Poland, that import machines from the Hydrema factories in Denmark and from 1997 Germany.

In 1980 Hydrema started producing their own machines from the bottom. It started with the Hydrema 800-series, which were a new line of backhoe loaders produced all by themselves. But the engines are made by Perkins Engines in England (Perkins is used in all of their machines today). Before then, they bought tractors from companies like Volvo, so they could mount their own hydraulic equipment on the tractors.

In 1983 Hydrema started producing their own dump trucks and in a short period in the late 1980s they also produced mobile building cranes.

In 1990 the Hydrema 800-series were replaced by the Hydrema 900-series which has a new chassis and more powerful axles and digging arm (backhoe).

In 1996 Hydrema started the production of a new mine clearing vehicle, named the Hydrema MCV 910. It can clear mine areas faster than manual mine clearing.

In 1997 Hydrema bought the Weimar-Werk Baumaschinen and thereby got production facilities in Germany. In Støvring the production and administration area is about 16.500 m² and 20.000 in Weimar.

In 1998 Hydrema launched their unique Hydrema MPV 900. It is a Multi Purpose Vehicle, which is able to switch whole tools, like a telescopic arm or a digging arm.

In 2006 Hydrema got into the military industry through a counter purchasing deal with the Swedish Hägglunds which is a part of the British-owned BAE Systems. Hydrema were supposed to produce and mount the guntowers of the Danish Army's new CV9035 Infantry Fighting Vehicle. It was an order of 45 new CV90s for the Danish Army.

Telescopic handler

A telescopic handler, or telehandler, is a machine widely used in agriculture and industry. It is similar in appearance and function to a forklift but is more a crane than forklift, with the increased versatility of a single telescopic boom that can extend forwards and upwards from the vehicle. On the end of the boom the operator can fit one of several attachments, such as a bucket, pallet forks, muck grab, or lift table.

The most common attachment for a tele-handler is pallet forks and the most common application is to move loads to and from places unreachable for a conventional forklift. For example, telehandlers have the ability to remove palletized cargo from within a trailer and to place loads on rooftops and other high places. The latter application would otherwise require a crane, which is not always practical or time-efficient.

The advantage of the telehandler is also its biggest limitation: as the boom extends or raises while bearing a load, it acts as a lever and causes the vehicle to become increasingly unstable, despite counterweights in the rear. This means that the lifting capacity quickly decreases as the working radius (distance between the front of the wheels and the centre of the load) increases. A vehicle with a 5,000lb capacity with the boom retracted may be able to safely lift as little as 400lb with it fully extended at a low boom angle. The same machine with a 5,000lb lift capacity with the boom retracted may be able to support as much as 10,000lb with the boom raised to 70°. The operator is equipped with a load chart which helps him determine whether a given task is possible, taking into account weight, boom angle and height. Failing this, most telehandlers utilize a computer which uses sensors to monitor the vehicle, and will warn the operator and/or cut off further control input if the limits of the vehicle are exceeded. Some machines are also equipped with front outriggers and can be called mobile cranes, which extend the lifting capability of the equipment while stationary.

Telehandlers were pioneered by the Matbro company at Horley in Surrey, England who developed them from their articulated cross country forestry forklifts. At first they had a centrally mounted boom on the front section, with the driver's cab on the rear section, as in the Teleram 40, but the rigid chassis design with a rear mounted boom and cab to the side has become more popular.


Telescopic handler

A telescopic handler, or telehandler, is a machine widely used in agriculture and industry. It is similar in appearance and function to a forklift but is more a crane than forklift, with the increased versatility of a single telescopic boom that can extend forwards and upwards from the vehicle. On the end of the boom the operator can fit one of several attachments, such as a bucket, pallet forks, muck grab, or lift table.

The most common attachment for a tele-handler is pallet forks and the most common application is to move loads to and from places unreachable for a conventional forklift. For example, telehandlers have the ability to remove palletized cargo from within a trailer and to place loads on rooftops and other high places. The latter application would otherwise require a crane, which is not always practical or time-efficient.

The advantage of the telehandler is also its biggest limitation: as the boom extends or raises while bearing a load, it acts as a lever and causes the vehicle to become increasingly unstable, despite counterweights in the rear. This means that the lifting capacity quickly decreases as the working radius (distance between the front of the wheels and the centre of the load) increases. A vehicle with a 5,000lb capacity with the boom retracted may be able to safely lift as little as 400lb with it fully extended at a low boom angle. The same machine with a 5,000lb lift capacity with the boom retracted may be able to support as much as 10,000lb with the boom raised to 70°. The operator is equipped with a load chart which helps him determine whether a given task is possible, taking into account weight, boom angle and height. Failing this, most telehandlers utilize a computer which uses sensors to monitor the vehicle, and will warn the operator and/or cut off further control input if the limits of the vehicle are exceeded. Some machines are also equipped with front outriggers and can be called mobile cranes, which extend the lifting capability of the equipment while stationary.

Telehandlers were pioneered by the Matbro company at Horley in Surrey, England who developed them from their articulated cross country forestry forklifts. At first they had a centrally mounted boom on the front section, with the driver's cab on the rear section, as in the Teleram 40, but the rigid chassis design with a rear mounted boom and cab to the side has become more popular.


Hitachi Ltd.

Hitachi Works is the oldest member of the Hitachi Group and consists of three factories: Kaigan, Yamate, and Rinkai Works. Yamate Works, the oldest of the three factories, was founded in 1910 by Namihei Odaira as an electrical equipment repair and manufacturing facility. This facility was named Hitachi, and is regarded as the ancestral home of Hitachi, Ltd.

Many management trainees intern at Hitachi Works before being permanently assigned to other Hitachi divisions. Senior management personnel are often participants in rotations at Hitachi Works for a few years as their career develops towards eventual head office stature. As a result, many of the senior managers of Hitachi Ltd have passed through Hitachi Works.

Spin-off entities from Hitachi Works include Hitachi Cable (1956) and Hitachi Canadian Industries (1988).

In 2007, Hitachi won the Investment in People Award, Asia Pacific Entrepreneurship Awards from Enterprise Asia, a regional NGO based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for their continued efforts in building human talents.

Hitachi divides its operations into seven industry segments.[3] These segments are listed below with the main products and services offered by each. The figure in parentheses shown with each segment is the percentage of total revenue (for the fiscal year ended March 2007) derived from that segment.

Information and Telecommunication Systems (21%)

Hitachi EX3600-6

Hitachi EX3600-6

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